I am indebted to many people who helped make this research possible. The University of Pittsburgh Honors College provided a GPS unit and resources to obtain needed materials. The Vale district of the Bureau of Land Management provided information on possible locations to investigate, help with camping, and a four wheel drive vehicle. Diane Pritchard, the BLM archaeologist, was helpful in a number of ways. Jean Findley, the BLM botanist, helped with needed background on the plants of the area. I appreciate the complete access to the Vale district BLM archaeological records. Professor Mark Bermann read drafts and provided guidance in the direction to go in interpreting the information. Professor William Harbert provided guidance in developing the distribution, vegetation and elevation maps and associated appendixes. Professor William Andrefsky of Washington State University identified and dated the one projectile point which was found during the project. I couldn't have made the field recordings without the help of the numerous individuals who accompanied me and insured that I was not alone in the remote back country of southern Malheur County: Carmen Kumagai, Misty Janes, Marnie Wilson, Pam Helfrich, Bonnie Oliver, Cedric Shock, Candace Shock, and Clinton Shock.